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  • Writer's pictureJonathan Stoddard

Comprehensive Guide to Pharaoh Ants

Introduction: The Pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis) is a small, yellow to light brown, nearly transparent ant notorious for being a major indoor nuisance pest, especially in hospitals. Its name is derived from the mistaken belief that it was one of the plagues of ancient Egypt during the time of the Pharaohs. Although not native to Egypt, the Pharaoh Ant has now spread worldwide.

Physical Characteristics of Pharaoh Ant

Group of pharaoh ants roaming around for food — Photo

The Pharaoh ant, scientifically named Monomorium pharaonis, is a tiny yet notably invasive species with distinctive physical features that set it apart from other ants. Here is a detailed overview of their physical characteristics:

  • Size: One of the most distinguishing characteristics of Pharaoh ants is their diminutive size. Adult workers typically measure about 1/16 inch (approximately 2 mm) in length.

  • Color: Pharaoh ants have a yellow to light brown, almost orangish hue. Their bodies are semi-transparent, often making them difficult to spot, especially against specific backgrounds.

  • Head and Antennae: The head of the Pharaoh ant houses a pair of elbowed antennae. Each antenna comprises 12 segments, with the terminal end forming a distinct three-segmented club. This clubbed antenna is a key distinguishing feature.

  • Thorax: Unlike some ant species, Pharaoh ants do not have a spine on their thorax. Also, from a side view, their thorax is not evenly rounded but has a more uneven profile.

  • Eyes: Their eyes are relatively small in proportion to their heads and do not possess an ocular ridge.

  • Pedicel: The pedicel, which is the narrow waist section between the thorax and the abdomen, consists of two segments in Pharaoh ants.

  • Gaster: The abdomen or gaster is somewhat bulbous and a shade similar to the rest of the body. Depending on what the ant has consumed, it might appear darker at specific points.

  • Stinger: Pharaoh ants possess a functional stinger, which is minute and not typically harmful to humans.

  • In summary, the Pharaoh ant's small size, light yellow to brown coloration, and distinctive antennae make it recognizable. However, spotting these ants often requires a keen eye, given its minute size and semi-transparent body. Recognizing their physical traits is essential for identification, especially when considering pest control measures, as they are known to be a prevalent indoor pest in many parts of the world.

Habits of Pharaoh Ants

Understanding Pharaoh ants' habits is crucial for their identification and effective management. These ants, known scientifically as Monomorium pharaonis, display behavioral patterns that have contributed to their reputation as a particularly bothersome pest in many parts of the world.

Colony Structure:

  • Polygynous Nature: Pharaoh ant colonies are polygynous, containing multiple queens. This structure aids in the rapid proliferation of the species.

  • Budding: When a colony becomes too large or is disturbed, it can undergo a process called 'budding.' In this phenomenon, a small group of worker ants and one or more queens will branch off to establish a new colony elsewhere. This trait makes Pharaoh ants particularly difficult to control, as conventional treatments might lead to further colony spread instead of eradication.


  • Indoor Nesting: Pharaoh ants are a major indoor pest. They prefer to nest in warm, humid areas. Inside buildings, they can often be found in wall voids, behind baseboards, under floors, and in furniture. They are also commonly found in hospitals, which can be a significant concern due to potential disease transmission.

  • Outdoor Nesting: Pharaoh ants can also nest outdoors in warmer climates, typically in shaded areas or under debris.

Dietary Preferences:

  • Pharaoh ants are omnivorous and prefer sugary foods, proteins, and fats. They consume various items, including syrups, fruits, meats, and even dead insects. In hospitals, they've been observed feeding on wound dressings, blood, and other medical supplies.

Foraging Behavior:

  • Pharaoh ants maintain well-defined foraging trails, which they mark with pheromone trails. These trails help other ants from the colony locate food sources.

  • They can forage day and night, although they tend to be more active during nighttime.

Temperature Preferences:

  • These ants thrive in warm and humid environments. Their preference for such conditions often leads them to infest heated buildings in temperate regions. The need for warmth also means that Pharaoh ants are primarily an indoor pest in cooler climates.

Social Behavior:

  • Communication: Like many ant species, Pharaoh ants use pheromones as a primary means of communication. These chemical signals help locate food, sound alarms, and differentiate between nestmates and outsiders.

  • Cooperative Behavior: Worker ants collaborate to find food, care for the young, and protect the colony. The presence of multiple queens ensures that if a portion of the colony is wiped out, another part can continue to thrive.

In conclusion, the habits of Pharaoh ants, particularly their polygynous nature and budding behavior, combined with their preference for warm, humid environments, make them a resilient and challenging pest to manage. Their adaptability to various conditions and omnivorous diet have facilitated their spread and persistence globally in tropical and temperate regions.

Diet of Pharaoh Ants

Common red ants walking on food scraps near a microwave

Pharaoh ants, known scientifically as Monomorium pharaonis, have a varied diet that has contributed significantly to their success as a species and their persistence as pests in diverse settings. These ants, native to tropical regions but now found worldwide, have dietary habits that allow them to adapt and thrive in many environments, from homes to hospitals.

Omnivorous Nature:

  • Pharaoh ants are omnivores, meaning they consume plant and animal matter. This dietary flexibility allows them to exploit a wide range of food sources, aiding their survival and proliferation.

Preference for Sugars:

  • One of the primary attractions for Pharaoh ants is sugary substances. They are particularly fond of honeydew, a sugary excretion from aphids. Additionally, they will readily feed on syrups, jams, fruit juices, and sugary beverages.

  • They often target sugar bowls, spilled drinks, candies, and baked goods in homes.

Proteins and Fats:

  • Aside from sugars, Pharaoh ants also have a penchant for proteins and fats. This attracts them to foods such as meats, grease, dairy products, and other oily or fatty substances.

  • They also prey on other insects, alive or dead, adding a source of protein to their diet.

Hospital Settings:

  • Pharaoh ants are notorious pests in hospitals. There, they don't just limit themselves to food substances but can also feed on unique items related to medical settings. This includes wound dressings, blood, intravenous solutions, and other medical supplies. This behavior poses a nuisance and a risk of spreading infections.

Water Source:

  • Like all living organisms, Pharaoh ants require water for survival. They are often found in humid environments or near water sources. They can be attracted to sinks, water pipes, or any place with moisture in indoor settings.

Feeding Behavior:

  • Pharaoh ants use pheromone trails to communicate with colony members about food sources. When a worker ant discovers food, it will leave a chemical trail leading back to the colony, guiding other ants to the source.

  • They can often be seen moving in well-defined foraging trails, primarily when a substantial food source has been located.

In summary, the diet of Pharaoh ants is varied and adaptable, encompassing a wide range of substances from sugary foods to proteins and fats. Their opportunistic feeding habits and ability to exploit human-made environments make them a persistent pest. Effective management of Pharaoh ants often involves understanding and disrupting their dietary patterns, combined with other integrated pest management strategies.

Life Cycle and Reproduction of Pharaoh Ants

Group of pharaoh ants roaming around for food — Photo

The Pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis, has a fascinating life cycle that allows for rapid proliferation and adaptability, making it a particularly resilient pest. Understanding these ants' life cycle and reproduction is key to implementing effective control measures.

Developmental Stages:

  • Like most ants, Pharaoh ants go through a complete metamorphosis consisting of four primary stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult.


  • After mating, a queen lays small, oval, and white eggs.

  • The eggs are minute, often measuring less than 0.5 mm in length.


  • After a few days, the eggs hatch into larvae. Larvae are legless and look like tiny white grubs. They are entirely dependent on adult workers for sustenance.

  • As they grow, the larvae shed their skin several times, undergoing a series of molts.


  • Following the larval stage, the ant transitions into the pupal stage. During this phase, the ant is encased in a protective cocoon and undergoes a significant transformation.

  • In the pupal stage, the ant develops its final adult form, though it remains immobile and dependent on worker ants.


  • An adult ant emerges once the developmental changes inside the pupal casing are complete.

  • The newly emerged adult ants are pale but will darken as they age. The entire process from egg to adult can take 38 to 45 days, depending on environmental conditions.


  • Multiple Queens: A unique feature of Pharaoh ant colonies is that they can have numerous queens, known as polygyny. This characteristic significantly boosts their reproductive capacity.

  • Mating: Males and queens are produced within the colony, and mating occurs in the nest. Unlike some other ant species, Pharaoh ants do not have nuptial flights. After mating, the male ant's purpose is fulfilled, and he soon dies.

  • Egg Laying: A fertilized queen lays eggs continuously, significantly contributing to the rapid growth of the colony. A single queen can lay hundreds of eggs throughout her life.

  • Colony Budding: One of the notable reproductive behaviors of Pharaoh ants is "budding." When conditions are crowded, or the colony is disturbed, a group of ants, including some queens, workers, and brood (eggs, larvae, and pupae), will split off from the main colony and establish a new nest elsewhere. This ability allows the ants to spread quickly and makes them challenging to control.

In summary, the Pharaoh ant's life cycle and reproductive strategies are structured for rapid growth and adaptability. Their ability to have multiple queens and their budding behavior ensures they can quickly colonize new areas and recover from disturbances. Understanding these dynamics is crucial for anyone looking to control or eradicate a Pharaoh ant infestation.

Economic and Health Importance of Pharaoh Ants

Pharaoh ants, Monomorium pharaonis, have become a notable concern worldwide due to their economic impact and potential health risks. Their persistent nature and preference for indoor environments can lead to significant problems in both domestic and commercial settings. Here's a comprehensive overview of their economic and health importance:

Economic Impact:

  • Pest Control Costs: Due to their budding behavior, multiple queens, and preference for indoor nesting, Pharaoh ants can be challenging to control. Households and businesses often incur recurring expenses for pest control measures to manage or eradicate infestations.

  • Damage to Property: Pharaoh ants, searching for food or nesting sites, may invade and damage various household items. In commercial settings, especially food businesses, their presence can contaminate goods and lead to monetary losses.

  • Loss of Business Reputation: In sectors like hospitality, pests like Pharaoh ants can tarnish a business's reputation, leading to decreased patronage and potential financial repercussions.

Health Implications:

  • Disease Transmission: Pharaoh ants are potential vectors for disease-causing organisms. As they forage, they can contaminate food with various pathogens. They have been known to transmit diseases such as Staphylococcus, Salmonella, and Streptococcus. Their preference for sugary substances means they can readily move from decaying food to human food, facilitating this transmission.

  • Medical Facilities: These ants pose a particular problem in hospitals. They can infest patient wounds, IV lines, and other sterile areas. Such invasions can lead to secondary infections in patients. Their small size allows them to penetrate standard medical packaging, risking the contamination of sterile environments.

  • Bites and Stings: While Pharaoh ants have a stinger, their stings are generally not harmful to humans. However, they can cause mild irritation, especially if someone is sensitive or allergic.

Psychological Impact:

  • Anxiety and Stress: Persistent ant infestations in homes can increase residents' stress and anxiety levels. The feeling that one's living space is under siege can be unsettling.

  • Fear of Contamination: Knowing that these ants can transmit diseases can lead to heightened fears about food contamination, especially in households with vulnerable individuals such as children or the elderly.

In conclusion, the importance of Pharaoh Ants' economic and health cannot be understated. Their capacity to invade human habitats, transmit diseases, and resist standard eradication methods makes them a notable concern. Effective management requires an integrated approach that addresses the ants and the conditions that make environments attractive to them.

General Control and Management of Pharaoh Ants:


  • The first step is to identify the ant species accurately. Misidentification can lead to ineffective treatment. Once confirmed as Pharaoh ants, the next step is to locate their nesting sites.


  • Ensure that food sources are limited by storing food in airtight containers.

  • Regularly clean up food residues, especially sugary spills.

  • Fix any leaking pipes or faucets, as these ants are attracted to moisture.

Physical Controls:

  • Seal any cracks, crevices, or openings that can serve as entry points.

  • Use sticky barriers or tapes to prevent their movement into specific areas.

Chemical Control:

  • Bait Stations: Baits are often more effective than sprays. Worker ants carry the baited food back to the colony, poisoning the queens and other ants.

  • Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs) can interfere with the ants' ability to reproduce or mature.

  • It's crucial to avoid using repellent sprays, as these can cause the colony to bud, creating multiple new colonies.


  • After treatment, continuous monitoring is necessary to ensure the colony has been eradicated and to detect any new infestations early.

Professional Consultation:

  • Due to the complexity of Pharaoh ant infestations, consulting with a pest control professional who can provide a more integrated and comprehensive treatment plan is often recommended.


  • Informing residents or staff (in the case of commercial establishments) about the habits and preferences of Pharaoh ants can be beneficial. Awareness can lead to early detection and prevention.

Imperial Pest Prevention: Your Solution to Pharaoh Ants and Other Pest Issues

Imperial Pest Prevention is a renowned name in the pest control industry, dedicated to offering top-notch solutions for various insect and pest problems. With a comprehensive approach and a team of experienced professionals, Imperial Pest Prevention ensures that homes and businesses remain pest-free.

How Imperial Pest Prevention Can Help With Pharaoh Ants:

  • Expert Identification: Our team is trained to quickly and accurately identify Pharaoh ants, distinguishing them from other ant species. This ensures that we employ the most effective treatment methods immediately.

  • Customized Treatment Plans: Understanding that each infestation is unique, Imperial Pest Prevention offers tailored treatment plans designed to address the specific nuances of every Pharaoh ant problem.

  • Use of Advanced Baits: Employing the latest baiting techniques, our professionals ensure that the entire Pharaoh ant colony, including the queens, is targeted, leading to comprehensive eradication.

  • Preventative Measures: Beyond treating the existing problem, our team provides solutions to prevent future ant infestations. This includes sealing potential entry points and offering recommendations for sanitation improvements.

Addressing Other Unwanted Insect Problems:

  • Broad Spectrum Solutions: Imperial Pest Prevention is equipped to handle various pests – from typical household insects like cockroaches and bedbugs to more specialized pets.

  • Eco-Friendly Treatments: Recognizing the importance of sustainable solutions, many of our treatments are eco-friendly, ensuring the safety of both the environment and the occupants of the treated premises.

  • Education & Awareness: We believe in empowering our clients. Our experts will guide you on best practices to prevent future infestations, ensuring you're well-informed about the habits and signs of various pests.

  • Continuous Monitoring: Pests can be persistent, and so are we. Imperial Pest Prevention offers continuous monitoring services to detect and address any potential resurgence of pests.

  • State-of-the-Art Equipment: Using the latest tools and technologies, we ensure that our treatments are both practical and efficient, minimizing disruption while maximizing results.

In Conclusion, Imperial Pest Prevention stands ready to assist Whether you're dealing with a persistent Pharaoh ant problem or any other unwanted insect infestation. Our blend of expertise, commitment to customer satisfaction, and use of advanced pest control techniques make us a preferred choice for many. Contact us, and let's work together to ensure your space is comfortable, safe, and pest-free.



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